The newly independent states of Eurasia: handbook of former Soviet republics. Realm of History. Retrieved 27 July Historically, early Iranian religions such as the Proto-Iranic religion and the subsequent Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism were the dominant religions in Iran, particularly during the Median, Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian eras.
Peters; D. Voice of America. InNader Shaha chieftain and military genius from Khorasansuccessfully drove out and conquered the Pashtun invaders. Archived from the original on 7 August At least 2 million Persian civilians died either directly in the fighting, the Ottoman perpetrated anti-Christian genocides or the war induced famine of The government of Iran has a paramilitary, volunteer militia force within the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corpscalled the Basijwhich includes about 90, full-time, active-duty uniformed members.
See also: Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War. Main article: Languages of Iran. From Zoroaster to Omar Khayyam. On the pretext of restoring order, the Russians occupied northern Iran in and maintained a military presence in the region for years to come.
Main article: Public holidays in Iran. RAND Corporation. Retrieved 6 May Iranian physics is especially strong in string theory , with many papers being published in Iran. While there are ancient relations between the Indian Vedas and the Iranian Avesta , the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions were characterized by fundamental differences, especially in their implications for the human being's position in society and their view of man's role in the universe.